Eccentric wheels to the counter-balanced “nodding donkey,” inventing ways to produce oil.


In a valley in northwestern Pennsylvania in 1859, Edwin L. Drake drilled America’s first commercial oil well, launching the U.S. petroleum industry. For his oil well pump, Drake borrowed a common kitchen hand-pump to retrieve the important new resource from a depth of 69.5 feet.

Seeking oil for the Seneca Oil Company for refining into a popular lamp fuel, kerosene, Drake’s shallow well created a new exploration and production industry, it wasn’t long before necessity and ingenuity combined to find something more efficient for producing oil from a well.

Artistic view of modern oil well pump from front.

Invented in 1925 in Lufkin, Texas, the counterbalanced pumping unit brought greater efficiency to the oil patch. Photo by Bruce Wells.

As the new petroleum industry evolved, pioneers realized improving oil well pump efficiency could greatly extend the economic life of far deeper wells. By the time of a 1901 gusher at Spindletop Hill in Texas, many pumping innovations were underway that would lead to the modern “nodding donkey.”

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Pumping oil from the ground can be seen in thousands of small, marginally producing oil wells reaching deep into geologic formations. There are 500,000 wells in the United States that produce less than 15 barrels of oil per day, but they remain an important part of the nation’s total production.

Stripper Wells

Oil wells will run dry, but advances in “artificial lift systems” technology can put off the inevitable. But even with today’s best technologies, more than half of the oil can remain trapped underground. Low-volume marginal or “stripper” wells produce no more than 15 barrels a day. The average stripper well produces only about 2.2 barrels per day. These wells comprise 84 percent of U.S. oil wells and produce 18 percent of all domestic oil.

Marginal oil and natural gas wells number about 650,000 of the nation’s 876,000 wells. Once shutdown, they are lost forever. Keeping them in production has long been a challenge for a special breed of oilman, one who combines technical skills with hard work in the field.

Multiple well pumping system patent drawing from 1875.

America’s oilfield technologies advanced in in the 1870s with patents like this “Improvement In Means For Pumping Wells,” invented in Pennsylvania.

“This is an occupation where most of your work is done in all types of weather while working alone, with few thanks, and possibly only a small herd of cattle as company,” notes the Oklahoma Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells.

It was the same in the industry’s earliest oil well pump days.

Central Power Units

Marginal quantities of oil always need help leaving the well. In the early days of the industry, oilmen adapted water-well technology to the problem and used steam-driven walking beam pump systems.

At each well, a steam engine rhythmically raised and lowered one end of a sturdy wooden beam, which pivoted on a Samson post. The walking beam’s other end cranked a long string of sucker-rods up and down to pump oil to the surface.

Illustration of oilfield "jack plant" with single-cylinder engine and eccentric wheel.

An oilfield “jack plant” often included a commonly used single-cylinder horizontal engine that rotated one eccentric wheel.

The beam walked and the oil surfaced, but a more efficient system was needed. One of the early oil pumping innovations came from an 1875 patent. An “Improvement in Means for Pumping Wells” allowed pumping of multiple wells with a single steam engine. The technology helped boost efficiency in the early oilfields of Venango County, Pennsylvania.

The new pumping method applied a system of linked and balanced walking beams to pump the oil wells. Wooden or iron rods instead of a rope and pulley system made the technology the forerunner of more efficient production methods. Learn more in Eccentric Wheels and Jerk Lines.

Walter Trout’s Revolutionary Prototype

As efficient as central power units were, time and technology changed the oilfield again. A new icon of U.S. petroleum production appeared and was soon known by many names: Donkey, Grasshopper, Horse-head, Thirsty Bird, and Pump Jack, among others.

Rare photo of oil well pump Walter Trout in 1925.

Sketched by Walter Trout in 1925, a prototype of his counterbalanced pump jack was in an oilfield before the end of the year.

As East Texas timber supplies dwindled and the sawmill business declined, the long-established Lufkin Foundry & Machine Company discovered new opportunities in the oilfield. As more oil discoveries were made, the company – in Lufkin, Texas – not only survived, but prospered.

Walter Trout was working in Texas for Lufkin Foundry & Machine in 1925 when he sketched out his idea for the now familiar counterbalanced oil well pump jack. Before the end of the year, the prototype was installed and working near Hull, Texas, in a Humble Oil Company oilfield.

oil well pumps

The founding of the Lufkin Foundry and Machine Company in 1902 would lead to creation of an oilfield icon known by many names — nodding donkey, grasshopper, horse-head, thirsty bird, etc. Photo by Bruce Wells.

“The well was perfectly balanced, but even with this result, it was such a funny looking, odd thing that it was subject to ridicule and criticism, and it took a long time, nearly a year, before we could convince many the idea was a good one,” Trout explained.

Typical oil well pump illustration of parts.

Key to pumping the oil (and often set to run on a timer), an engine turns gears that move a counter weight connected to the walking beam, which moves the sucker-rod up and down to up draw oil.

Modern stripper wells still look much like Walter Trout’s original, but they enjoy the reliability and efficiency that 85 more years of evolving technology have produced. General Electric acquired Lufkin Industries for $3.3 billion in 2013. Lufkin Industries continues to manufacture advanced pumping units in demand worldwide. GE closed the historic 1902 downtown Lufkin foundry in 2015.

In addition pump jacks, electric submersible pump (ESP) systems also have become a vital artificial lift method of pumping production fluids (learn ESP history in Inventing the Electric Submersible Pump).

Pumping Efficiency

As with nearly every segment of the petroleum industry, artificial lift systems — including the venerable pump jack — are also benefiting from inclusion of “smart” technology, notes a representative from another leading oilfield supply company.

“The computer-based technology is used to monitor and analyze pump systems in real time from miles away, quickly and with minimal human interference,” explained Paul Nelson of Houston-based Weatherford International Ltd. in a 2001 article for Oil and Gas Online.

“On pump jacks that means constant monitoring of well production and the lift unit in order to optimize energy usage while maximizing the amount of oil recovered from reluctant zones,” Nelson added. Smart well technology has become of particular importance to the United States, where a very large portion oil is produced from thousands of small stripper wells producing less than 10 barrels a day.

Many stripper wells have reached such a depleted pressure state that once they are shut in they can never be economically restarted. The majority of them must be kept alive by oil well pump jacks.

"Rudolph the Red Nosed Pumping Unit" in Lufkin, Texas,

The lighting of the “Rudolph the Red Nosed Pumping Unit” in Lufkin, Texas, has included more than 1,000 lights decorating a 38-foot-tall pump jack. Photo courtesy the Lufkin Daily News.

“By improving pump efficiencies without adding significantly to operating costs, smart well technology stands to extend by years the economic life of many of these wells and, by extension, add millions of barrels of oil to U.S. reserves,” he concluded.


Edwin L. Drake (1819-1880) became the “father of the petroleum industry” when he drilled what most consider America’s first commercial oil well on August 27, 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania. He used a steam engine and cable-tool rig. Drake overcame many financial and technical obstacles to make his historic discovery. He also pioneered new drilling technologies, including using iron casing to isolate his well bore from nearby Oil Creek.

Learn more about petroleum drilling technologies, including how “fishtail” bits became obsolete in 1909 thanks to Howard Hughes Sr., read Making Hole — Drilling Technology. 

Another innovative advance came in 1933 with the use of slant drilling to solve a major oilfield crisis — see Technology and the “Conroe Crater.


Recommended Reading:  Lufkin, from sawdust to oil: A history of Lufkin Industries, Inc. (1982); Modern oil-well pumping, An Oil and gas journal book (1962). Your Amazon purchases benefit the American Oil & Gas Historical Society. As an Amazon Associate, AOGHS earns a commission from qualifying purchases.


The American Oil & Gas Historical Society preserves U.S. petroleum history. Become an AOGHS supporting member and help maintain this energy education website and expand historical research. For more information, contact Copyright © 2021 Bruce A. Wells. All rights reserved.

Citation Information – Article Title: “All Pumped Up – Oilfield Technology.” Authors: B.A. Wells and K.L. Wells. Website Name: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. URL: Last Updated: February 11, 2021. Original Published Date: September 1, 2006.


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